Fieldwork-based case studies will be conducted in six to seven countries from around the world representing different development-migration trajectories and ‘phases’ (drawing on transition theory) over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These cases will provide in-depth insights into the evolution of mobility systems consisting of distinct, multi-layered but functionally interrelated forms of internal and international migration, and how their distinct evolution can be explained from variations in broader development processes.
Complementing the country-level analyses, local within-country case studies will provide vital evidence on the long-term evolution of complex migration and wider mobility systems, and how this evolution can be explained from the character of and variations in broader development processes. Please scroll over the map provided below to learn more about the reason we have selected each country.
Brazil – Simona Vezzoli and Naiara Rodriguez Peña
Brazil offers the entry-way into several forms of migration and transitions: colonial settlement, and large labour migrations from Southern Europe, internal mobility and displacement of indigenous populations, emigration to OECD countries, diverse forms of mobility across the Amazon basin and recent migration from the Central and South American countries and Europe.
- Rodriguez-Pena, Naiara. (2020). “State expansion, development imaginaries and mobility in a peripheral frontier: the case of Caracaraí, Brazil.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 165. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 15.
- Naiara Rodriguez Peña. (2019). State encroachment and migration in a peripheral frontier: A case study of Caracaraí, Brazil. University of Amsterdam.
Ethiopia – Kerilyn Schewel and Asmamaw Legass Bahir
Ethiopia offers a unique case of a country that has never been colonised and experiences relatively low levels of international migration despite (or because of) a high incidence of poverty and a long history of authoritarianism and displacement. Recently, emigration (to the Gulf and elsewhere) seems to increase rapidly on par with larger development processes.
- Schewel, Kerilyn. (2020). “Migration, Development and the Urbanization of the Good Life: Mobility Transitions in Rural Ethiopia.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 159. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 11.
- Schewel, Kerilyn. (2019). “Moved by Modernity: How Development Shapes Migration in Rural Ethiopia.” Department of Sociology, University of Amsterdam.
- Schewel, Kerilyn, and Asmamaw Legass. (2019). “Migration and Social Transformation in Ethiopia.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 152. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 7.
- Schewel, Kerilyn. (2018). “Ziway or Dubai: Can Flower Farms in Ethiopia Reduce Migration to the Middle East?.” IOM Migration Research Series (55): 2-14.
- Schewel, Kerilyn and Sonja Fransen. (2018). “Formal Education and Migration Aspirations in Ethiopia.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 144. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 2.
Italy – Simona Vezzoli
In Italy, migration has been central to nation-building and where the lack of opportunities and internal income differences have generated continuous internal migration and large emigration over the last two centuries. While Italy’s recent transition to a net immigration country as a major transformation, the recent economic crisis points to the potentially ephemeral nature of such transitions as emigration regains strength.
- Vezzoli, Simona. (2020). “Social Transformation, Resistance and Migration in the Italian Peninsula over the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 164. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 14.
- Vezzoli, Simona. (2020). “State Expansion, Changing Aspirations and Migration: The Case of Cisternino, Southern Italy.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 158. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 10.
Morocco – Hein de Haas, Katharina Natter, Mohamed Berriane and Dominique Jolivet
Morocco is a quintessential ‘labour frontier’ country (cf. Skeldon 1997) and has recently overtaken Turkey as the prime source of non-EU immigration. While at least 10 percent of its population is living in Europe, emigration rates have recently declined and Morocco is increasingly becoming a destination country for sub-Saharan migrants and refugees, possible heralding its future transition into a country of settlement (de Haas 2014).
- Jolivet, Dominique. (2020). “Welfare and Migration: Unfulfilled Aspirations to “Have Rights” in the South- Moroccan Todgha Valley” IMI Working Paper Series no. 170. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 19.
- Natter, Katharina. (2018). “Immigration Policy Theory: Thinking Beyond the ‘Western Liberal-Democratic’ Box.” IMI Working Paper Series no. 145. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 3.
The Netherlands – Hein de Haas, Siebert Wielstra, Sonja Fransen
The Netherlands has as a rich migration history linked to its central position as a small, open trading nation, its colonial empire, as well as its central role in slavery and the recruitment of Europeans and Asians. While in the post-War years many Dutch participated in government-sponsored emigration schemes (e.g. to Australia), post-colonial migrations of Dutch-Indonesians and Surinamese and immigration of workers and their families from Turkey and Morocco transformed the Netherlands into a high-immigration country.
- Wielstra, Albertus Sikke Jan. (2020). “Migration and Social Transformation in a Small Frisian Town: The Case of Bolsward, the Netherlands” IMI Working Paper Series no. 169. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 18.
- Wielstra, Albertus Sikke Jan. (2019). Changing migration dynamics in a small rural town: a case of replacement migration and social transformation. University of Amsterdam.
French Guiana – Simona Vezzoli, Mathis Osburg
French Guiana is an overseas department and region of France in South America that enables the study of mobility in relation to rapid but deep processes of socio-economic development within the wider context of France’s established political and bureaucratic stability. Until the second half of the 20th century, mobility remained tied to the relocation of convicts from metropolitan France and the promotion of rural agricultural activities. After the Second World War, the expansion of the French state’s services in this peripheral overseas department has contributed to rapid urbanization, increasing immigration from countries in the region, and long-distance internal migration to metropolitan France.
- Osburg, Mathis (2020) “State Expansion, Mobility and the Aspiration to Stay in Western French Guiana” IMI Working Paper Series no. 168. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam. MADE Project Paper 17.